# python 实现识别手写 MNIST数字集的程序

实现我们的⽹络来分类数字

git clone https://github.com/mnielsen/neural-networks-and-deep-learning.git

class Network(object):def __init__(self, sizes):self.num_layers = len(sizes)self.sizes = sizesself.biases = [np.random.randn(y, 1) for y in sizes[1:]]self.weights = [np.random.randn(y, x)for x, y in zip(sizes[:-1], sizes[1:])]

2 个神经元，第⼆层有 3 个神经元，最后层有 1 个神经元的 Network 对象，我们应这样写代码：

net = Network([2, 3, 1])

Network 对象中的偏置和权重都是被随机初始化的，使⽤ Numpy 的 np.random.randn 函数来⽣

def sigmoid(z):return 1.0/(1.0+np.exp(-z))

def feedforward(self, a):"""Return the output of the network if "a" is input."""for b, w in zip(self.biases, self.weights):a = sigmoid(np.dot(w, a)+b)return a

def SGD(self, training_data, epochs, mini_batch_size, eta,test_data=None):"""Train the neural network using mini-batch stochasticgradient descent. The "training_data" is a list of tuples"(x, y)" representing the training inputs and the desiredoutputs. The other non-optional parameters areself-explanatory. If "test_data" is provided then thenetwork will be evaluated against the test data after eachepoch, and partial progress printed out. This is useful fortracking progress, but slows things down substantially."""if test_data: n_test = len(test_data)n = len(training_data)for j in xrange(epochs):random.shuffle(training_data)mini_batches = [training_data[k:k+mini_batch_size]for k in xrange(0, n, mini_batch_size)]for mini_batch in mini_batches:self.update_mini_batch(mini_batch, eta)if test_data:print "Epoch {0}: {1} / {2}".format(j, self.evaluate(test_data), n_test)else:print "Epoch {0} complete".format(j)

training_data 是⼀个 (x, y) 元组的列表，表⽰训练输⼊和其对应的期望输出。变量 epochs 和
mini_batch_size 正如你预料的——迭代期数量，和采样时的⼩批量数据的⼤⼩。 eta 是学习速率，
η。如果给出了可选参数 test_data ，那么程序会在每个训练器后评估⽹络，并打印出部分进展。

⼩的⼩批量数据。这是⼀个简单的从训练数据的随机采样⽅法。然后对于每⼀个 mini_batch

update_mini_batch ⽅法的代码：

def update_mini_batch(self, mini_batch, eta):"""Update the network's weights and biases by applyinggradient descent using backpropagation to a single mini batch.The "mini_batch" is a list of tuples "(x, y)", and "eta"is the learning rate."""nabla_b = [np.zeros(b.shape) for b in self.biases]nabla_w = [np.zeros(w.shape) for w in self.weights]for x, y in mini_batch:delta_nabla_b, delta_nabla_w = self.backprop(x, y)nabla_b = [nb+dnb for nb, dnb in zip(nabla_b, delta_nabla_b)]nabla_w = [nw+dnw for nw, dnw in zip(nabla_w, delta_nabla_w)]self.weights = [w-(eta/len(mini_batch))*nwfor w, nw in zip(self.weights, nabla_w)]self.biases = [b-(eta/len(mini_batch))*nbfor b, nb in zip(self.biases, nabla_b)]

⼤部分⼯作由这⾏代码完成：

delta_nabla_b, delta_nabla_w = self.backprop(x, y)

update_mini_batch 的⼯作仅仅是对 mini_batch 中的每⼀个训练样本计算梯度，然后适当地更

self.backprop 的代码。现在，就假设它按照我们要求的⼯作，返回与训练样本 x 相关代价的适

"""network.py~~~~~~~~~~A module to implement the stochastic gradient descent learningalgorithm for a feedforward neural network.  Gradients are calculatedusing backpropagation.  Note that I have focused on making the codesimple, easily readable, and easily modifiable.  It is not optimized,and omits many desirable features.""" #### Libraries# Standard libraryimport random # Third-party librariesimport numpy as np class Network(object):     def __init__(self, sizes):        """The list sizes contains the number of neurons in the        respective layers of the network.  For example, if the list        was [2, 3, 1] then it would be a three-layer network, with the        first layer containing 2 neurons, the second layer 3 neurons,        and the third layer 1 neuron.  The biases and weights for the        network are initialized randomly, using a Gaussian        distribution with mean 0, and variance 1.  Note that the first        layer is assumed to be an input layer, and by convention we        won't set any biases for those neurons, since biases are only        ever used in computing the outputs from later layers."""        self.num_layers = len(sizes)        self.sizes = sizes        self.biases = [np.random.randn(y, 1) for y in sizes[1:]]        self.weights = [np.random.randn(y, x)                        for x, y in zip(sizes[:-1], sizes[1:])]     def feedforward(self, a):        """Return the output of the network if a is input."""        for b, w in zip(self.biases, self.weights):            a = sigmoid(np.dot(w, a)+b)        return a     def SGD(self, training_data, epochs, mini_batch_size, eta,            test_data=None):        """Train the neural network using mini-batch stochastic        gradient descent.  The training_data is a list of tuples        (x, y) representing the training inputs and the desired        outputs.  The other non-optional parameters are        self-explanatory.  If test_data is provided then the        network will be evaluated against the test data after each        epoch, and partial progress printed out.  This is useful for        tracking progress, but slows things down substantially."""        if test_data: n_test = len(test_data)        n = len(training_data)        for j in xrange(epochs):            random.shuffle(training_data)            mini_batches = [                training_data[k:k+mini_batch_size]                for k in xrange(0, n, mini_batch_size)]            for mini_batch in mini_batches:                self.update_mini_batch(mini_batch, eta)            if test_data:                print "Epoch {0}: {1} / {2}".format(                    j, self.evaluate(test_data), n_test)            else:                print "Epoch {0} complete".format(j)     def update_mini_batch(self, mini_batch, eta):        """Update the network's weights and biases by applying        gradient descent using backpropagation to a single mini batch.        The mini_batch is a list of tuples (x, y), and eta        is the learning rate."""        nabla_b = [np.zeros(b.shape) for b in self.biases]        nabla_w = [np.zeros(w.shape) for w in self.weights]        for x, y in mini_batch:            delta_nabla_b, delta_nabla_w = self.backprop(x, y)            nabla_b = [nb+dnb for nb, dnb in zip(nabla_b, delta_nabla_b)]            nabla_w = [nw+dnw for nw, dnw in zip(nabla_w, delta_nabla_w)]        self.weights = [w-(eta/len(mini_batch))*nw                        for w, nw in zip(self.weights, nabla_w)]        self.biases = [b-(eta/len(mini_batch))*nb                       for b, nb in zip(self.biases, nabla_b)]     def backprop(self, x, y):        """Return a tuple (nabla_b, nabla_w) representing the        gradient for the cost function C_x.  nabla_b and        nabla_w are layer-by-layer lists of numpy arrays, similar        to self.biases and self.weights."""        nabla_b = [np.zeros(b.shape) for b in self.biases]        nabla_w = [np.zeros(w.shape) for w in self.weights]        # feedforward        activation = x        activations = [x] # list to store all the activations, layer by layer        zs = [] # list to store all the z vectors, layer by layer        for b, w in zip(self.biases, self.weights):            z = np.dot(w, activation)+b            zs.append(z)            activation = sigmoid(z)            activations.append(activation)        # backward pass        delta = self.cost_derivative(activations[-1], y) * \            sigmoid_prime(zs[-1])        nabla_b[-1] = delta        nabla_w[-1] = np.dot(delta, activations[-2].transpose())        # Note that the variable l in the loop below is used a little        # differently to the notation in Chapter 2 of the book.  Here,        # l = 1 means the last layer of neurons, l = 2 is the        # second-last layer, and so on.  It's a renumbering of the        # scheme in the book, used here to take advantage of the fact        # that Python can use negative indices in lists.        for l in xrange(2, self.num_layers):            z = zs[-l]            sp = sigmoid_prime(z)            delta = np.dot(self.weights[-l+1].transpose(), delta) * sp            nabla_b[-l] = delta            nabla_w[-l] = np.dot(delta, activations[-l-1].transpose())        return (nabla_b, nabla_w)     def evaluate(self, test_data):        """Return the number of test inputs for which the neural        network outputs the correct result. Note that the neural        network's output is assumed to be the index of whichever        neuron in the final layer has the highest activation."""        test_results = [(np.argmax(self.feedforward(x)), y)                        for (x, y) in test_data]        return sum(int(x == y) for (x, y) in test_results)     def cost_derivative(self, output_activations, y):        """Return the vector of partial derivatives \partial C_x /        \partial a for the output activations."""        return (output_activations-y) #### Miscellaneous functionsdef sigmoid(z):    """The sigmoid function."""    return 1.0/(1.0+np.exp(-z)) def sigmoid_prime(z):    """Derivative of the sigmoid function."""    return sigmoid(z)*(1-sigmoid(z))
"""mnist_loader~~~~~~~~~~~~ A library to load the MNIST image data.  For details of the datastructures that are returned, see the doc strings for load_dataand load_data_wrapper.  In practice, load_data_wrapper is thefunction usually called by our neural network code."""#### Libraries# Standard libraryimport cPickleimport gzip# Third-party librariesimport numpy as npdef load_data():    """Return the MNIST data as a tuple containing the training data,    the validation data, and the test data.     The training_data is returned as a tuple with two entries.    The first entry contains the actual training images.  This is a    numpy ndarray with 50,000 entries.  Each entry is, in turn, a    numpy ndarray with 784 values, representing the 28 * 28 = 784    pixels in a single MNIST image.     The second entry in the training_data tuple is a numpy ndarray    containing 50,000 entries.  Those entries are just the digit    values (0...9) for the corresponding images contained in the first    entry of the tuple.     The validation_data and test_data are similar, except    each contains only 10,000 images.     This is a nice data format, but for use in neural networks it's    helpful to modify the format of the training_data a little.    That's done in the wrapper function load_data_wrapper(), see    below.    """    f = gzip.open('../data/mnist.pkl.gz', 'rb')    training_data, validation_data, test_data = cPickle.load(f)    f.close()    return (training_data, validation_data, test_data)def load_data_wrapper():    """Return a tuple containing (training_data, validation_data,    test_data). Based on load_data, but the format is more    convenient for use in our implementation of neural networks.     In particular, training_data is a list containing 50,000    2-tuples (x, y).  x is a 784-dimensional numpy.ndarray    containing the input image.  y is a 10-dimensional    numpy.ndarray representing the unit vector corresponding to the    correct digit for x.     validation_data and test_data are lists containing 10,000    2-tuples (x, y).  In each case, x is a 784-dimensional    numpy.ndarry containing the input image, and y is the    corresponding classification, i.e., the digit values (integers)    corresponding to x.     Obviously, this means we're using slightly different formats for    the training data and the validation / test data.  These formats    turn out to be the most convenient for use in our neural network    code."""    tr_d, va_d, te_d = load_data()    training_inputs = [np.reshape(x, (784, 1)) for x in tr_d]    training_results = [vectorized_result(y) for y in tr_d]    training_data = zip(training_inputs, training_results)    validation_inputs = [np.reshape(x, (784, 1)) for x in va_d]    validation_data = zip(validation_inputs, va_d)    test_inputs = [np.reshape(x, (784, 1)) for x in te_d]    test_data = zip(test_inputs, te_d)    return (training_data, validation_data, test_data)def vectorized_result(j):    """Return a 10-dimensional unit vector with a 1.0 in the jth    position and zeroes elsewhere.  This is used to convert a digit    (0...9) into a corresponding desired output from the neural    network."""    e = np.zeros((10, 1))    e[j] = 1.0    return e

# test network.py    "cost function square func"import mnist_loadertraining_data, validation_data, test_data = mnist_loader.load_data_wrapper()import networknet = network.Network([784,  10])net.SGD(training_data, 5, 10, 5.0, test_data=test_data)